Friday, May 29, 2020

Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur - Free Essay Example

African-Americans have always been treated unfairly in America, and over the past 100 to 200 years, it has gotten better, but there is still a lot of struggle that the Black community, specifically Black men, deal with in 2018. Two well known poets, Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur, focused specifically on the struggle of the Black community. Though Hughes was mainly active from the mid 1900s to the mid 1960s and Shakur more recent, from the 90s, these poets shared the same sentiment. Through their poetry, Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur demonstrate the theme of the struggle of the black community, specifically black men, in America. For many, understanding the black experience in America is near to impossible unless, of course, you are black. Black people have had to fight and protest for everything that a non person of color was given, mainly freedom, education, and the right to vote. Some examples being the Selma march led by Martin Luther King, Jr., the race riots in the 1960s and the early 90s that came about from police brutality, and more recently the protests/riots and development of Black Lives Matter to fight how blacks are being murdered by mostly white police officers. Blacks have always wanted to be seen as equal and instead are seen as dangerous, scary, unintelligent, and lazy. African-Americans as a community are treated differently, but within recent years it seems as if black men have been more on the chopping block, especially with police brutality. Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur speak out about this unfair treatment through their poetry. Hughes and Shakur focus on the poverty and oppression on the black community, with Shakur focused more on police brutality. This makes sense based on when the two were born and what they personally experienced at the time. Both poets simply expressed that they want African-Americans to be seen as equals, and even when they are gone, they want their message to live on so that future generations can view themselves as something more than a stereotype. Langston Hughes (1902-1967), was born in Missouri to his parents, but was raised by his grandmother because his parents were constantly working; his father not even in the states. Hughes passion for writing started when he was very young. Because he was alone a lot, Hughes read a lot of books and listened to the stories his grandmother would tell him. His grandmothers stories were based on her life, and revolved mainly around race. This inspired Hughes to take his writing from his own life as well, and a lot of this can be seen in some of the first plays Hughes wrote. Hughes and his father viewed race very differently, and this was emulated in Hughes play Mulatto, which reflects his own relationship with his father (Darwin T. Turner 297). Scholar David Roessel writes that Hughes mentions in his autobiography, The Big Sea, My father hated Negroes. I think he hated himself, too, for being a Negro. Hughes loved his people and this was one of his main reasons for moving to Harlem, to be around more black people, and this is where a lot of his more well known poetry was written. Langston Hughes purpose behind his poetry was to bring attention to the state of Blacks (Leon Lewis). This is seen in Hughes use of imagery and symbolism in his poetry, one of which being Theme for English B (1951). In this poem, a young black student at an all white college is given an assignment by his white professor to write one page about themselves or their truth. Lines 27 and 28 read So will my page be colored that I write?/Being me it will not be white. (l.l. 27-28). These lines show the dilemma of a black student trying to figure out if he will be honest and put his black truth down or write something he knows his instructor wants to see. The student is letting his professor know that if he wants the truth of a black man in America, it will not be white washed [to conceal or cover up]. Then in lines 29-33,But it will be/a part of you instructor./You are white†/yet a part of me, as I am a part of you./Thats American. (l.l. 29-33), the student is telling his professor that he, the student, is just as much a part of America as he, the instructor, is and that they should not be treated or looked at differently. In lines 34-36, Sometimes perhaps you dont want to be a part of me./Nor do I often want to be a part of you./But we are, thats true! (l.l. 34-36), the student is expressing that even though blacks and white should not be seen differently, they are. The whites clearly do not want to be a part of the blacks and with the way blacks are getting treated by whites, they do not want to be apart of the whites either. However, they are still apart of each other, whether they like it or not. Finally in lines 37-40, I guess you learn from me†/although youre older†and white†/and somewhat more free/This is my page for English B. (l.l. 37-40), the student is showing his instructor that even though he is the student, he is teaching the teacher about the black truth. Telling his instructor that white people are more free is his truth. For black men in America, there is not as much freedom as whites. This is where the reader understands that what they read is what the white professor will read. This was the black students page. Though this poem was written in 1951, the words and message Hughes wanted to convey with this poem still holds true to today. Blacks are treated differently than whites and even though we all live in the same coun try and should still have the same rights, blacks are seen as less than. It makes you wonder if things have actually changed or if we have just gotten better at covering it up. Blacks are mainly treated differently when it comes to the justice system, specifically concerning police brutality. Another poet who made a career out of bringing attention to this topic was Tupac Shakur. Tupac was passionate about police brutality, and how the police treated black people, and this is evident in his lyrics and imagery. Tupac Shakur (1971-1996) was born in Harlem, New York to his mother Afeni Shakur, who was a Black Panther, and was arrested while pregnant with Tupac. She defended herself in court and beat her own case. Tupac was raised around people with strong convictions about black struggle. Along with his mother, his step father and godfather were not only apart of the Black Panthers, but held high positions of leadership in the organization. Tupacs biological father was not in the Panthers, but respected their message and how they looked out for each other. Even though Tupac was conceived through a one night stand, he believes that because he was formed from black love, his life and legacy should be about the advancement of black people. Tupacs message was for black people to never stop fighting and to not accept the limitations that are being put on them. In Tupacs poem/song Changes (1998), he uses strong imagery to give the reader a peek into the way life is for the blacks in the ghetto. This is first seen in lines 2-5, I see no changes wake up in the morning and I ask myself/Is life worth living should I blast myself?/Im tired of bein poor and even worse Im black/My stomach hurts so Im lookin for a purse to snatch (l.l. 2-5). Tupac used the imagery of the typical black experience in the ghetto. Waking up in the morning is something we can all relate to, but imagine waking up and the first thought you have is that your life is so horrible that you contemplate suicide. Then in addition to that feeling, you are hungry but there is no food, so in order to have money to eat, you have to resort to robbery. This also relates to line 67, And I aint never did a crime I aint have to do (l.l. 67). Tupac is expressing through this line that in the ghetto, most crimes are committed because they have to be. In an interview with Tanya Hart, Tupac made a crucial point that relates to line 67 by saying, How can a white person give the money to the ghetto and they scared to come to the ghetto? (Shakur 10:16). Blacks are not being given any money or opportunity because no one wants to help the ghetto, so blacks in the ghetto have to result to crime to meet their basic needs; food, water, shelter. Blacks being forced into crime obviously leads to police brutality because when you commit a crime, you get caught by the police. Tupacs issue is that the police do not care to know why the crime is being committed, they do not see the criminal as a person. The police just want to arrest the criminal and feel like they are doing something good, when all they are doing is really contributing to the problem. This proven through lines 6-7, Cops give a damn about a negro/Pull the trigger kill a nigga hes a hero (l.l. 6-7). The police are supposed to be seen as people who are there to help, but when they are just killing off blacks, it pushes blacks to be angry. When you see your people being treated that way, it allows you to see who your enemy really is and makes you want to fight back. With this type of treatment going on, how are black people supposed to view themselves? If you treat someone a certain way, sooner or later they will start to believe that they are who they are being treated as. So if a group of people are being treated like criminals and treated as if they have nothing to offer to the world but that [crime], what do you expect? Tupac understands this because of his personal experiences with police and his familys experience with police. Police are constantly treating blacks unfairly in plain view, and no one cares. This is shown in lines 42 and 43, It aint a secret dont conceal the fact/The penitentiarys packed, and its filled with blacks (l.l. 42-43). The imagery in those lines are g iving the reader an image of jail and how black men are the most incarcerated. When black men feel constantly under the radar, it lessens their self view and makes them feel like they can never truly rest because they feel like they have to be on their best behavior at all times. Tupac expresses this feeling in lines 77 and 78, And as long as I stay black I gotta stay strapped/And I never get to lay back (l.l. 77-78). This line shows the image of never getting a chance to fully relax and be okay because black people are always worried about themselves or their people. Tupac Shakur simply wanted change for his people and wanted the black experience to be known and used strong imagery in his poems to do that. Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur were both very similar in their message and how they wanted to convey that message. Both poets wanted more for the black community. They wanted blacks to be equal, and understood the anger behind the protests and the riots. In an interview with Abbie Kearse, Tupac makes a great analogy about why black people are so angry with how we get treated. The interview takes place in a hotel room and Tupac says, If I know that in this hotel room they have food every day, and Im knocking on the door every day to eat, and they open the door, let me see the party, let me see like them throwing salami all over the..I mean just like throwing food around but they telling me theres no food in there.Im standing outside trying to sing my way inWe are hungry please let us in, we are hungry please let us in. After about a week, that song is gonna change to We hungry, we need some food. After two, three weeks its like you know, Give me all the food or we breakin down the d oor, After a year its Im pickin the lock comin through the door blastin. (Shakur 1:58-2:37). This analogy is so good and relates to Hughes poem Harlem, What happens to a dream deferred?/Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?/Or fester like a sore†/And then run?/Does it stink like rotten meat?/Or crust and sugar over†/like a syrupy sweet?/Maybe it just sags/like a heavy load./Or does it explode? (Hughes 170). The last line of that poem goes hand in hand with Tupacs food analogy. After all these years of trying to do it the right way or the nice way, how else are we supposed to attack the problem? When is enough enough? Both poets understood the anger and hurt of being treated less than and wanted more. Another similarity between Shakur and Hughes was that they wanted blacks to be seen as more than entertainers. Hughes realized this at a young age and noticed that whites were only fond of blacks if they were being entertaining, but as soon as the blacks wanted to speak u p or sounded intelligent, they got shut down. Tupac also pushed this idea and wanted more blacks to go to school and demand respect with their intelligence and not be another rich athlete or entertainer. Lastly, the main similarity between Hughes and Shakur is that they wanted to leave a legacy for younger black generations to keep fighting for equality. They both knew that the best way for anything to change was to leave behind an encouraging message for those to come. In conclusion, because of people like Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur, we have groups today like Black Lives Matter that fight for black people to be seen as equal, and carry on the message that black people are more than criminals and should have the same respect as white people. Shakur and Hughes loved their people and wanted nothing more than to see black people overcome the typical stereotypes. I relate to this message on a personal level. As a black woman, I am constantly thinking about how I come off to people. I have to watch how I react to things that are said to me sometimes because if I go off, then Im perpetuating the angry black woman stereotype. The few times I have been pulled over by a cop, I have to make sure my hands do not move until the officer tells me to get my I.D., and even then Im scared that they think Im reaching for something. I live it every day, and it is hard to not be angry or act like everything is fine because it is not. It is not okay that black peo ple or people of color are blatantly treated differently for the same thing a white person does, and we have no choice but to keep fighting for that equality until something changes. I believe that was what Langston Hughes and Tupac Shakur wanted for their people, and they used their poetry to get that message across the best way they knew how. They took their personal struggles and the injustices that they saw, put it in their poetry using strong imagery to allow non-black people to try and understand the black experience in depth, and used that to leave behind a strong legacy to empower the black communities of today to not accept what they are being given, but to fight for more.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Should Prostitution Laws Be Legal - 1304 Words

Most people morally oppose the profession of prostitution because they consider it to be a taboo. While others believe that it is their right and personal freedom to choose what to do with their life and body. Recently, the debate about how laws should address prostitution legally has become a subject of legislative action. Prostitution itself is not a criminal offence under the Constitution, but there are certain laws under the Criminal Code that discourage it and makes it unlawful. For example, these sections made activities such as communicating for the purposes of prostitution, living off the avails of prostitution, and keeping a common bawdy house illegal. However, in the recent landmark case of Canada (Attorney General) v. Bedford (2013), the constitutionality of these three laws was questioned. In this case, three former sex workers argued that these prostitution laws that were initially meant to protect them, put their safety at risk. More specifically, they argued that the ir section 7 right to security of the person, had been infringed upon by these prostitution laws. They claimed that striking down these laws that decriminalize prostitution can result in ensuring the security of sex workers. In response, the Harper government introduced Bill C-36, Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act in 2014, which sought to decriminalize parts of the existing prostitution laws. The constitutionality of prostitution law is a legal controversy that will beShow MoreRelatedProstitution Laws Should Be Legal968 Words   |  4 Pagessome people, but prostitution laws are actually inhibiting sex traffickers from being brought to justice. The primary reason being that prostitution laws obviously create a barrier between sex trafficking victims and the police. Hence, a study by the Department of Justice found that officers replied that â€Å"victims’ distrust† of law enforcement was by far the most difficult challenge in their investigations, as opposed to lack of resources, lack of training, etc. Prostitution laws are blocking theRead MoreProstitution Is A Big Controversy Around The World1033 Words   |  5 PagesProstitution is a big controversy around the world. Many debate about whether prostitution should be legalised due to the person being old enough to make the right decisions for themselves and for their body. Many choose this career as a way to make a living because they choose its right to. Others on the other hand do not agree. The opposing side say that prostitution should not be legal due to so much violence and abuse that a prostitute goes through. Many do not choose the lifestyle to becomeRead MoreProstitution Is Legal Under Strict Regulations1516 Words   |  7 PagesProstitution in Germany Like many countries in the world, prostitution in Germany is legal under strict regulations. Prostitution in Germany dates back to many centuries and although it was never legalized, prostitution was never illegal and discrete brothels existed. In 2002, Germany implemented the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes that was intended to improve the legal status of prostitutes, improving the social position of prostitutes, improving working conditions of prostitutesRead MoreShould Prostitution Be Legal? Essay1145 Words   |  5 PagesShould prostitution be legal? Prostitution has been around for decades. Since 1780 BC the legalization of prostitution has been a controversial topic. Prostitution is the act or practice of engaging in promiscuous sexual relations especially for money.† Prostitution. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. Many claim that is one of the oldest professions. If this is one of the oldest professions why is it still illegal? So many people have different opinions on the issueRead MoreShould Prostitution Be Legal? Essay1261 Words   |  6 PagesProstitution has existed in history since before most people can remember. In our time, prostitution is hotly debated as to whether it should be a professional working job, or whether it is immoral and oppressive to women. This debate has existed since the dawn of time, and there is still no clear answer. Society demands that police should stop certain illicit activities from happening in their neighborhoods, but should law enforcement be made to waste their time and effort to arrest those thatRead MoreProstitution Between Canada And Canada1712 Words   |  7 PagesProstitution in Canada: Changes in Legislation Due to the fairly recent changes regarding the legality of prostitution in Canada, individuals who use and provide these services have been cautious (Warnica, 2015). Unfortunately, new laws may create more problems than benefits, such as, financial problems due to fewer people buying sex because it is illegal to do so. In this paper, I will explicate and assess the new changes to the law regarding prostitution in Canada, arguing that prostitution shouldRead MoreA Red Light District on Every Corner Essay1120 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout human history, most civilizations have considered prostitution as an illegal trade, but that does not necessarily mean that making prostitution illegal is the best choice. Many countries including the United States have begun to debate the merit of legalizing prostitution. Before making such an important decision, we must address certain questions. Would legalizing prostitution reduce some of the inequalities and abuse suffered by the men and wome n involved? Would society lose decadesRead MoreProstitution And Its Effect On Society Essay1630 Words   |  7 Pages For a free society to keep violent crime to a minimum with little disturbance on individual liberty, government should, alongside prosecuting ‘victimless’ crimes, minimize the opportunity for the corrupt to create victims. Prostitution has been practiced in all ancient and modern cultures. In the United States, prostitution was originally widely legal. Prostitution was made illegal in almost all states between 1910 and 1915 due to the influence of the Woman s Christian Temperance Union which wasRead MoreThe Criminal Code And Prostitution1566 Words   |  7 PagesCriminal Code and Prostitution in Canada: A Historical Overview Prostitution has always been a topic of contention and controversy in Canada and other counties. Due to various perspectives on how prostitution should be addressed through law, the legal status of prostitution varies from country to country. Prostitution itself has always been legal in Canada, however many activities tied to it have been strategically criminalized by prostitution laws. Canadian prostitution laws have evolved from aRead MoreA Crime Against Public Morals1474 Words   |  6 Pagesas the song says, then why are there some many laws of control. The moral laws on the books are for public interest only many are not really even enforced. The one law I can justly say that the government really should remove is Prostitution is one of the oldest professions in the world. The world’s oldest profession, prostitution is quite simply the exchange of sex for money or property (commercial gain). Either soliciting or engaging in prostitution is a crime (Wallace, 2012). Every country has

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 1195 Words

A common term heard when the American Dream is mentioned is â€Å"a self-made man.† This term refers to the goal of all Americans who are in the working or lower classes. They are not content with where they are in the social pyramid, so they strive to alter their social status. Gatsby, from The Great Gatsby, was one of these lower class citizens. He was not happy about his social standing and lack of money, so he made himself into a new man, one that he hoped Daisy would love even more. Gatsby is a true representation of â€Å"a self-made man† due to his recreation of himself that helped him evolve from James Gatz to Jay Gatsby. â€Å"A self-made man† is not only a man or woman that is made by themselves, but also one that has transformed himself in a dramatic way. For example, a man who started as a poor farmer, then started his own business and made a large sum of money would be considered â€Å"a self-made man.† He created a new persona or identity for himself through his own actions. Often it is looked at as difficult to be â€Å"a self-made man† because it involves breaking out of an inherited social position. Most people do not have the determination to risk everything to become a different, possibly even better, human being. Since being â€Å"a self-made man† is a difficult, but realistic goal, these men and women are often the models in society. They are the people that others look up to and get inspiration from. They look to those who are embracing the American Dream and strive to be likeShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faà §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughout its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1343 Words   |  6 PagesHonors English 10 Shugart 18 Decemeber 2014 The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald s 1925 novel The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story, a mystery, and a social commentary on American life. The Great Gatsby is about the lives of four wealthy characters observed by the narrator, Nick Carroway. Throughout the novel a mysterious man named Jay Gatsby throws immaculate parties every Saturday night in hope to impress his lost lover, Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby lives in a mansion on West Egg across from DaisyRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Gatsby The Jazz Age was an era where everything and anything seemed possible. It started with the beginning of a new age with America coming out of World War I as the most powerful nation in the world (Novel reflections on, 2007). As a result, the nation soon faced a culture-shock of material prosperity during the 1920’s. Also known as the â€Å"roaring twenties†, it was a time where life consisted of prodigality and extravagant parties. Writing based on his personal experiences, author F. ScottRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1166 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Haze F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in a time that was characterized by an unbelievable lack of substance. After the tragedy and horrors of WWI, people were focused on anything that they could that would distract from the emptiness that had swallowed them. Tangible greed tied with extreme materialism left many, by the end of this time period, disenchanted. The usage of the literary theories of both Biographical and Historical lenses provide a unique interpretation of the Great Gatsby centered aroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words   |  3 PagesIn F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. Gatsby’s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of w ealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay970 Words   |  4 Pagesrespecting and valuing Fitzgerald work in the twenty-first century? Fitzgerald had a hard time to profiting from his writing, but he was not successful after his first novel. There are three major point of this essay are: the background history of Fitzgerald life, the comparisons between Fitzgerald and the Gatsby from his number one book in America The Great Gatsby, and the Fitzgerald got influences of behind the writing and being a writer. From childhood to adulthood, Fitzgerald faced many good andRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2099 Words   |  9 Pagesauthor to mirror his life in his book. In his previous novels F. Scott Fitzgerald drew from his life experiences. He said that his next novel, The Great Gatsby, would be different. He said, â€Å"In my new novel I’m thrown directly on purely creative work† (F. Scott Fitzgerald). He did not realize or did not want it to appear that he was taking his own story and intertwining it within his new novel. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, he imitates his lifestyle through the Buchanan family to demonstrateRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1607 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Gatsby is an American novel written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the themes of the book is the American Dream. The American Dream is an idea in which Americans believe through hard work they can achieve success and prosperity in the free world. In F. Scott Fitzgerald s novel, The Great Gatsby, the American Dream leads to popularity, extreme jealousy and false happiness. Jay Gatsby’s recent fortune and wealthiness helped him earn a high social position and become one of the mostRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1592 Words   |  7 PagesMcGowan English 11A, Period 4 9 January 2014 The Great Gatsby Individuals who approach life with an optimistic mindset generally have their goals established as their main priority. Driven by ambition, they are determined to fulfill their desires; without reluctance. These strong-minded individuals refuse to be influenced by negative reinforcements, and rely on hope in order to achieve their dreams. As a man of persistence, the wealthy Jay Gatsby continuously strives to reclaim the love of hisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1646 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920s witnessed the death of the American Dream, a message immortalized in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Initially, the American Dream represented the outcome of American ideals, that everyone has the freedom and opportunity to achieve their dreams provided they perform honest hard work. During the 1920s, the United States experienced massive economic prosperity making the American Dream seem alive and strong. However, in Fitzgerald’s eyes, the new Am erican culture build around that

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Merchant of Venice free essay sample

The hatred and greed mostly comes from Shylock because he has been mocked by people. Shylock is portrayed as a greedy character in the play. Shylock is a clownish Jewish stereotype, or a tragic figure that has been spat on. Shylock plays the antagonist. He is a moneylender, father to Jessica, enemy to Antonio. Shylock is also portrayed as an angry man and very greedy. Throughout the play, Shylocks attitude towards money and human relationships is very painful. When shylock hears about Jessica and Lorenzo’s elopement, he rages with a lot of anger. Shylock seems to be more worried about his ducats that Jessica stole than the fact that his daughter is gone. In Shylocks famous speech â€Å"Hath not a Jew eyes† is a powerful speech. He exposes the hypocrisy of the Christian characters that are always talking about love and mercy but then go their own way and make Shylock feel isolated because he is Jewish and different. Go, presently inquire, and so will I, Where money is, and I no question make to have it of my trust or for my sake. Antonio is explaining that even though all his fortunes are at sea, he will try to acquire a loan in order to pay for Bassanio’s trip to Belmont, in attempt to marry Portia. Antonio’s action can be positive or negative. It can be positive in a way that he truly cares about Bassanio and he respects that he is in love with Portia or negative because little does Antonio know, he will be potentially giving up his life for Bassanio. Later in the play another side of Antonio is revealed. Antonio is displayed as a hard cruel man, although a Christian, he displays hatred and contempt towards the Jewish race, usurers and especially towards Shylock. After kicking and spitting upon Shylock, Antonio shows no remorse or sympathy for the man he has abused. Antonio even goes to the point of saying I am as like to call thee so again, to spit on thee again, to spurn thee too. If thou wilt lend this money, lend it not As to thy friends, for when did friendship take A breed for barren metal of his friend? But lend it rather to thine enemy; who if he break, thou mayst with better face Exact the penalty. These action are clearly motivated by hatred towards Shylock in a very negative way. They are negative because Antonio is treating Shylock with no respect and also physically abusing him at times. Even in what Antonio thought were his last days, he lovingly says, â€Å" Pray god Bassanio come to see me pay his debt (die), and then I care not† (3. 3. 38-39). Antonio is asking Bassanio to come see him one more time before he dies. This action is motivated by love because Antonio is not scared to die; he simply wants to see his best friend, who he loves one last time. Jessica’s love and hate are motivated in a positive and negative way. Her love for Lorenzo motivated her to run off with him and abandon her father, Shylock. This action can be either positive or negative because Jessica loves Lorenzo and it’s what she wants to do but she will be disobeying her father and leaving him behind. Jessica hated her father very much. She reveals this before she leaves by saying â€Å"I am sorry thou wilt leave my father so, our house is hell and thou a merry devil. Her hatred for her father motivated her to steal his jewels and ducats before she left. Jessica’s final words to her father were â€Å"Farewell; and if my fortune be not crost, I have a father, you a daughter, lost. † (2. 6. 57-58). This action is negative because it is wrong for her to steal, especially from her father. From the motivation of both love for Lorenzo and hate for Shylock, Jessica converts to the Christian religion and plans to marry Lorenzo. Jessica reveals this saying â€Å" If thou promise, I shall end this strife, become a Christian and thy loving wife.† (2. 3. 20-21) These actions are positive. They are positive because Jessica is doing what her heart and love is telling her to do, even though her father does not agree. Hate is a very strong and dark emotion that motivates the actions of Shylock in a negative way. Shylock’s mind is set on one thing, the pound of flesh in which Antonio owes him for failing to pay back the bond. The bond i s â€Å" Three thousand ducats in three months from twelve. † (1. 3. 113-114) If Antonio fails to pay back the bond; Shylock is entitled to remove one pound of flesh from Antonio. Shylock expresses this demand of the pound of flesh by saying â€Å"Ill have my bond; speak not against my bond: I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond. † (3. 3. 5-6). This quote clearly identifies that shylock has sworn on oath that he will have his bond and nothing will get in his way until he gets what he deserves yet even when he is offered back double the money Shylock purely out of hate refuses. These actions are negative because Shylock can spare Antonio’s life, but from hate he chooses not to. The hate from Shylock to Antonio comes from his hatred of Christians. Shylock reveals this when he says, â€Å" I hate him for he is a Christian† (1. 3. 42). This quote indicates that Shylocks negative actions are all motivated from hatred because Antonio is simply a Christian. In conclusion, love and hate are two very common emotions expressed throughout the play Merchant Of Venice. Love and hate are two emotions that can motivate people to do both good and bad things. They both positively and negatively affect characters such as Antonio, Jessica and Shylock. 822 words

Friday, April 17, 2020

The Enlightenment Essays - Philosophes, Fellows Of The Royal Society

The Enlightenment Main Themes: The Enlightenment 1. The Enlightenment had its origins in the scientific and intellectual revolutions of the 17c. 2. Enlightenment thinkers felt that change and reason were both possible and desireable for the sake of human liberty. 3. Enlightenment philosophes provided a major source of ideas that could be used to undermine existing social and political structures. I. The Major Themes of the Era: A. rationalism --* logical reasoning based on facts. B. cosmology --* new world view based on Newtonian physics --* analysis of natural phenomena as systems. C. secularism --* application of scientific theories to religion and society. D. scientific method --* experimentation; observation; hypothesis. E. utilitarianism (Bentham) --* laws created for the common good and not for special interests. The greatest good for the greatest number. F. optimism & self-confidence --* anything is possible (a reversal of medieval thinking). G. tolerance --* a greater acceptance of different societies and cultures. H. freedom --* a mind as well as a society free to think, free from prejudice. I. mass education. J. legal / penal reforms --* Beccaria, Bentham. K. constitutionalism. L. cosmopolitanism. II. The Philosophes: A. Not really philosophers, but men who sought to apply reason and common sense to nearly all the major institutions and mores of the day. B. They attacked Christianity for its rejection of science, otherworldliness, and belief in man's depravity (Deism). C. Their major sources: LOCKE --* man's nature is changeable and can be improved by his environment. NEWTON --* empirical experience and the rationality of the natural world. BRITAIN --* exemplified a society in which enlightened reason served the common good. D. France became the center for Enlightenment since its decadent absolutism and political and religious censorship seemed to prove the need for reform. E. Paris salons. F. Diderot's Encyclopedie. G. physiocrats: FRANCOIS QUESNAY --* land is the only source of wealth, and agriculture increases that wealth; therefore, the mercantilists were wrong to put so much importance on the accumulation of money. ADAM SMITH --* Wealth of Nations --* he challenged mercantilist doctrine as selfish and unnatural; the interdependence among nations; Father of Modern Capitalism. H. Montesquieu --* The Spirit of the Laws -- admired the British government. -- separation of powers in the government. -- checks and balances. I. Rousseau --* The Social Contract -- Father of Romanticism. -- he differed from the other pholosophes, esp. Locke: -- law is the expression of the General Will. -- rejected science and reason; go with your feelings (inner conscience). -- Man is born free, but is everywhere in chains! J. Voltaire -- Candide -- champion of individual rights. -- I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it! -- leading advocate of Enlightened Despotism. III. Enlightened Despotism: A. Prussia: -- Frederick I (1714-1740) -- the Seargent King. -- Frederick II (1740-1786) B. Habsburg Austria: -- Maria Theresa (1740-1780) --* Pragmatic Sanctions. -- Joseph II (1765-1790) --* considered to be the only true enlightened despot. C. Russia: -- Peter the Great (1682-1725) --* Westernization (Windows to the West). -- Catherine the Great (1762-1796) --* rigorous foreign policy; partitions of Poland. IV. Results of Enlightenment Thought: A. contributing factor in the American and French Revolutions. B. Enlightenment thinking reflected in the U. S. Declaration of Independence. C. Enlightened Despots. D. European thought became centered on the belief in reason, science, individual rights, and the progress of civilization. E. New evangelical religious movements --* Pietists, Methodists. ADDITIONAL TERMS TO KNOW: philosophesphysiocratsutilitarianismcosmopolitanismsalonlaissez-faireImmanuel KantJohn WesleyMethodismPietismGeneral WillPhilosopher-King The Enlightenment The Age of Reason 18th century intellectual movement based on reason caused by the scientific revolution Questioned the physical universe Centered in Paris -the modern Athens Believed in natural laws - very secular Criticized: a) Absolutism b) Established Church Very important to American Revolution Enlightened Thought 1) Natural science should be used to understand all aspects of life a) Nothing was to be accepted on faith b) Caused conflict with the church 2) Scientific laws were capable of discovering human and natural laws 3) Humans could create better societies and people Enlightenment Philosophe (Fr. Philosopher) but not only a French movement Critics of absolutism did not face death for their beliefs like in other countries French was the lingua franca -international language of educated Critics of the Old Regime and absolutism Developed new ideas about God, human nature, good and evil, and cause and effect relationships Humans were basically good, but corrupted by society Ideas were established by Marquis de Condercet in Progress of the Human Mind Salon Bernard de Fontenelle popularized science and made it easy to understand Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds Fontenelle brought science and religion into conflict (Catholics and Protestants scientists believed their work exhalted God) John Locke English thinker, rejected Descartes Tabula

Friday, March 13, 2020

Cooperatives in Kenya Essays

Cooperatives in Kenya Essays Cooperatives in Kenya Essay Cooperatives in Kenya Essay Co-operatives are user-owned, user-controlled and user-benefited organisations. They could be agricultural, non-agricultural, unions, or Savings and Credit co-operatives. They operate in different sectors of the economy including, agricultural, handicraft, Jua kali, transport, housing development, building and construction, banking and many other such spheres of the economy. Clearly, the cooperative movement has had its tentacles in every possible sector of the Kenyan business world. These co-operatives, and more strongly established, the agricultural cooperatives , play a major role in production, especially in the marketing bit. However, the broad objective of the co-operative concept is to promote the economic interests and general welfare of members in accordance with co-operative principles, and thus, pivotal in economic growth and alleviation of poverty. The policy objective of the Kenyan co-operative movement is to spur sustainable economic growth by focusing on achievement of desired outcomes through strengthening of the movement, improving operation extension service delivery, corporate governance, access to markets and marketing efficiency (International Monetory Fund 2007). The co-operatives have an immense potential to deliver goods and services in areas where both the public and the private sector have not ventured into. In most cases, co-operatives are local institutions that address local needs, employ local talent and are lead by local leaders, either directly or through branches. The co-operatives in Kenya are organized into service and producer co-operatives. The producer co-operatives’ objectives are to promote the use of modern technology and contribute to national development through production. The service co-operatives are responsible for procurement, marketing and expansion services, loan disbursement, sale of consumer goods and member education. The co-operatives have made remarkable progress in agriculture, banking, credit, agro-processing, storage, marketing, dairy and housing. Service co-operatives are the closest to communities and are organized on a shareholder basis, formed by individual members of organizations voluntarily working in a specific geographical area. For instance, primary level sugarcane farmers co-operatives provide a collection point for ,the farmers’ prooduce and even negotiate the per ton cost of sugarcane. Considering the substantial benefits that the cooperative movement has to our economy, and considering its significance to the livelihood of many, the Government recognizes the need for urgently improving management structures and accountability of co-operatives, so as to create a sustainable environment for their existence and operations. Just some few numerical facts to back my case as to influence of co-operatives to the society: -The cooperative is almost 103 years old, having started with the Dairy Societies in 1908. -In Kenya, we have about 12,000 registered co-operatives out of which 5000 are SACCO’s (Savings and Credit Co-operatives). -The Co-operative movement in Kenya has a membership of over 7 million individuals, making it the largest in Africa. It impacts directly and indirectly on 70% of Kenya’s population. SACCOS themselves have mobilized over 150 Billion Kshs in savings, more than 30% of the National Domestic Savings. -There is an entire Ministry, Ministry of Co-operative Development that provides enabling policy, legal and institutional framework. The co-operative movement in Kenya is organized into a system comprising of primary and secondary societies. The structure coalesces into a four tier structure of primary co-operatives, Unions, National co-operative Organizations (NACOs) and one Apex body, the Co-operative Alliance of Kenya (CAC). At each level, different functions can be performed. While the structure is stable, the performance and linkages within the various levels is weak, but there is room and potential for the co-operatives to work together much more through local, national, regional and international structures than the current prevailing situation. Historical Origin of Co-operative movement in Kenya – A Timeline survey 1908 – The first co-operative in Kenya formed, exclusive to the white settlers. 1945 – A new Co-operative Societies Ordinance was enacted allowing African participation. 946 – A department of co-operatives was established and a Registrar appointed. 1952 – Colonial civil servants began joining the movement. About 160 co-operatives registered. 1954 – Application of the Swynnerton plan boosted the co-operative movement. 400 registered. 1963 – Upon independence, co-operative movements were the key cornerstone of nation building. Around 1000 soc ieties had been registered. 1967 – The Government initiated KNCDP (Kenya Nordic Co-operatives Development Program), which was funded by Nordic countries and also the World Bank. 974 – Kenya had a fully fledged Ministry of Co-operative Development. 1997 – A new policy was formulated to provide for a member based, autonomous and member controlled movement, through Sessional Paper no. 6 of 1997. 2004 – The Co-operative Societies Amendment Bill, 2004 sought to re-introduce Government control while recognizing a free market economy. Principles upon which the Co-operative movement is founded. Voluntary and Open membership – There should be no limitation to membership in a co-operative society. Limitations may only be placed where a certain skill or profession is required. Therefore, co-operative membership is open to all who are willing to accept the responsibilities of membership without gender, social, political or religious discrimination. Democratic member control – It works on the following principles: 1)Members must have the final authority in making decisions concerning their society. 2)Every member has one vote notwithstanding his or her share contributions. 3)There must be a small group of members elected by other members which forms the committee which manages and administers the society. Autonomy and Independence – Co-operatives are self-help organizations controlled by members. All contracts entered into by the co-operative is done without external influence and by collective decision of the members themselves. Member economic participation – A co-operative is formed not for the motive of profit, but to provide services. This is branched into 2: 1)Limited rate of interest on capital – A share capital of a co-ope rative gets a limited rate of interest. Key aim is to benefit members collectively and thus applying capital generally to development of the co-operative. 2)Disposal of surpluses – In a co-operative there should be a fair and just system of distribution of surplus. Therefore surplus is either reinvested for the benefit of the society in general, or distributed in proportion to a member’s business transaction with the society. Promotion of education, training and information – A member of a co-operative must be informed of everything about the co-operative organization. This includes his rights, obligations, the principles that guide the society, the management and administration and its activities. Co-operation among co-operatives – This principle was established to strengthen the co -operative movement through mutual assistance at local and international level so as to bring about social and economic development of people regardless of their background. Concern for the community – Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by the members. The general upliftment should be the key thought upon co-operative decision making. Moral values upon which the Co-operative movement is found Self-help – A Co-operative is formed by members to help themselves achieve a certain objective or benefit which would be difficult, or almost impossible to achieve as individuals. Chief concern is to help members themselves. Self responsibility – A co-operative movement is self-sustained, it has its own management, makes its own decisions and undertakes its own responsibilities. Every member accepts the risks associated thereto, and in case of a mishap, every member shall bear the brunt of it collectively. Democracy – Every member has 1 vote in decision making regardless of the proportion of shares held. All decisions and resolutions made by a co-operative are made collectively with maximum member participation. Majority rule prevails. Equality and Equity – A co-operative treats all members as equal regardless of their capital or investment. All members are given equal rights and are subject to the same obligations. Rules and principles of a co-operative are also applied uniformly, and decision making is also every member’s right and not a decision of a chosen few. Solidarity – All members of a co-operative are very adamant and firm on their cause and purpose for which the union was formed. There is a sense of unity that binds them together. Moreover, every co-operative helps another co-operative for furtherance of the collective co-operative movement. Honesty – Members are required to come to the co-operative with truth and honesty. They should also be willing to undertake their duties with due diligence, and report every profit or benefit gained personally in the pretext of the co-operative. Openness – Co-operative members are required to be open to each other in the sense that they should disclose information in their possession which would have been beneficial to the co-operative, and even to share ideas and thoughts of other members amongst themselves, not for personal gain, but for mutual benefit. Social responsibility – The chief aim of the co-operative movement is to promote the economic welfare of the members and even the general public at large. A co-operative movement should ensure the development and poverty alleviation of the people of the region where it is situated. Benefits of Co-operative organizations to the community at large When it comes to agricultural co-operatives, they help farmers in the collection, transportation, processing and marketing of agricultural produce. A common example would be the Kenya Co-operative Creameries (KCC) which has over the ears helped dairy farmers get value for their milk. Co-operatives enable many individuals pool their funds, to undertake bigger projects and investments which they would otherwise not be able to do, e. g Cashew nut farmers came together to form a co-operative through which they erected a plant to process their produce, since the Government had banned exports of raw cashew nuts abroad. The co-operatives could distribute farm inputs more efficiently and thus boost agricultural production while cutting costs. A common example would be the import of seeds. Many farmers would get access to high quality highbred seeds which would be imported by the co would be to purchase a common item used by every member in bulk, so as to enjoy quantity discounts. Previously, small-scale farmers used to sell their produce to middlemen who would be the link to the actual buyers. This would mean, a substantial portion of the profits would be chewed up by the middlemen. After the establishment of co-operatives, the co-operative eliminated the middlemen. This meant, the entire profits would be retained by the members themselves. Social control mechanisms become an acceptable substitute for physical assets as collateral for loans. The co-operative may also allow its assets, upon agreement by other members, to be used as collateral to seek loans for the upliftment of one of their members. Poverty can be alleviated by planning, organizing, implementing and managing income-generating activities. Co-operatives promote even the smallest of farmers to gain a fair value for their produce. This encourages many individuals who are below poverty lines to farm for themselves. Single and widowed women even have a way to earn for themselves. They are catered for through their co-operatives. Development funds are channelled to individual members. Individuals with exceptional ideas are motivated and encouraged where funds are commonly pooled via the co-operative and distributed to those requiring them. Members can be educated on economic and social issues affecting the industry, including development of entrepreneurial skills. The co-operatives organize workshops and trainings for their members to build their knowledge and skills in their areas of expertise. The co-operative also undertakes to solve common problems together. E. g KCC (Kenya Co-operative Creameries) helping dairy farmers save their cattle from ticks. Wealth and capital can be created and owned jointly by large groups of low income earners. There is a common pool through which capital is owned and invested in specific areas for profit generation for all the members of the co-operatives. The co-operative concept encourages a common sharing of ideas. When members come together, they exchange ideas to come up with ingenious solutions for their problems, or clever solutions for their common investments. Challenges facing co-operatives in Kenya Lack of integrity on the part of the union, society committee members and employees. The corrupt people in management mismanage and misapply funds which act to the detriment of other members. Some co-opera tives have even been opened as a con, a money making scheme for the certain few. Excessive costs in handling member produce, and high administration costs. Sometimes the administration costs of the co-operative tends to supercede the profits and gains of the co-operative, this renders a co-operative not viable, and eventually spell its dissolution. Poor management. Some of the co-operatives, especially the ones for low income individuals are poorly managed, since those in management of the co-operative are illiterate and not well educated, therefore there would be serious lapses and judgemental errors and inefficiencies in their decisions. Lack of basic understanding among the co-operatives about the purpose and functions of the movement. Some of the members do not understand the purpose of the co-operative movement, hence they are unaware of how exactly to capitalize on the co-operative for their own benefit.. Inadequacy of resources. Majority of the co-operatives are formed by low income earning individuals whose very quest is wealth upliftment. Therefore the investment of such individuals in the co-operative is minimal, and thus, leaves the co-operative handicap – with a lot of ideas, but few resources to cater for its implementation. Some of the co-operatives fail to reach up to the standard acceptable by consumers and most importantly, acceptable by export standards. Therefore, many co-operatives, due to poor delivery of quality, do not get value for their products. This greatly hampers their income generating ability. Government involvement. Sometimes the government involvement is too excessive, and thus it makes some of the co-operatives too dependent on Government support and foreign aid. Such an attitude prevents the co-operative from operating on its 100% capacity and ability. Some co-operatives face stiff competition for their products, from rich investors who deal in the same product. This would not allow the small co-operatives to grow into being businesses to enable them to compete with the rich investors. SUGGESTED REFORMS The Ministry should undertake constant training and workshops for members of co-operatives and most importantly the management of the co-operatives to enable the co-operative to be steered in the right direction, in the most efficient of manners. Help co-operatives to deal with technological changes by informing them of new developments, and also to undertake research which would help the co-operatives to deliver quality products. The Government should easen up their lending rates for co-operatives to enable them access easy finance, to enable them to undertake larger projects so as to grow enough to compete with other investors in the same industry. Corrupt managers and co-operative members be subject to the stringent of rules, and punished severely for their misdeeds, so as to curb con men from using the co-operative movement as their money mint. Threaten to deregister any co-operative which con ducts its operations with low integrity. This would instil more confidence of the public into the co-operative movement, and encourage them to be part of it. POWERS OF THE REGISTRAR OF DISSOLUTION OF SOCIETIES. If the registrar after holding an inquiry or making an inspection or receiving an application made by at least three quarters of the members is he of the opinion that the society ought to be dissolved he may in writing order its dissolution and subsequent cancellation of registration. Any member who feels aggrieved by this order may within two months after its making appeal against it to the Minister with a final appeal to the tribunal. Where no appeal is filed within the prescribed time the order shall take effect on the expiry of that period but where an appeal is file within time the order shall not take effect unless confirmed by the minister or by the tribunal. When the registrar makes that order, he must make a further order relating to the custody of the books and documents of the society and the protection of its assets. It should be noted that no society shall be dissolved or wound up except by an order of the registrar. Where a society has less than the prescribed number of members the registrar may in writing order its dissolution and that order takes effect immediately and where registration is cancelled the society ceases to exist as a corporate body from the date the order takes effect. It should also be noted that Section 64 applies the provisions relating to winding up of companies to winding up of cooperative societies. Where a registration is cancelled the registrar may appoint one or more persons to be liquidator or liquidators of that society and all the property of such a society vests in him from the date upon which the order of cancellation takes effect CONCLUSION To reach large numbers in the low income sector, requires an able and strong co-operative ministry, which has a firm co-operative policy guiding it. The co-operative policy should be capable of meeting diverse needs of different segments of the population and varied speres of the economy. Co-operatives and strategic alliances are very important in setting pace for individuals to venture into entrepreneurship, or self wealth creation, especially for low income households, a sector of the economy which has been severely neglected by the commercial Kenya. These households would get a blessing in disguise in the shape of a co-operative. Promotion of the co-operative movement should be seen as one way of promoting social and economic justice, especially in developing countries which are ravaged by poverty, diseases and hunger. In Africa, co-operative development is certainly the nest frontier for low income earners who want to strike it big. This is a movement which has enormous potential for expansion and growth. Once again, I emphasize that the cooperative structure and the cooperative philosophy are very effective and flexible in satisfying the needs of the poor. This makes the cooperative model very idea for channelling agricultural products, and the idea of farming into the masses. I wish the cooperative movement in Kenya a fruitful future, and wishing them luck in their battle against poverty eradication coupled with high inflation. ******************************** REFERNCES: -Class Notes -Article by Nelson Kuria of CIC Insurance Ltd in the Daily Nation -www. cooperative. go. ke -www. ilo. org -Handout by Mr. Mweseli, from the KLSS Bureau -Nutshells – Business Law

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Americans versus the Spanish Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Americans versus the Spanish Culture - Essay Example Pietri managed to illustrate the actual state of the cultural rivalry and the differences between the American and the Spanish communities in America. The poem clearly showed the differences, mostly due to his decision to use a number of issues such as differences in language, skin colour, and economic differences. Culturally, people of the Spanish community were considered slaves of the Americans and were supposed to work in their fields, industries and homes, ultimately dying with the poverty they came with to the country. The poem explored their deplorable conditions, their lack of ambition and their high level of suffering. Pedro Pietri revealed that hardly could the Spanish escape poverty that ravaged their masses. Instead, they died in hope for a better life, like owning some form of property, for example, a piece of land or a house. In their efforts to impress their bosses, they frequently died. He sympathized with them, for he never saw a possible end to the problems in the f oreseeable future. The scolding and demeanour of the race is evident, with the writer noting that some workers wished death would befall their supervisors so that they could get a pay rise. He actually sympathized with the troubled race of the Spanish and their hopeless condition. (Pietri 1-11). Rodriguez (7) gave his reasons for believing in the existence of cultural differences between the Americans and the Spanish. However, he did not vividly highlight the effects of this difference, just like Pedro Pietri did. His is a story of his